Understanding the Origins of the Term 'Pitch' in Soccer
Perhaps most of us who love soccer (or football, as it's called in many parts of the world) have never given much thought to why the game is played on a "pitch." After all, it's just a term we hear and use without really considering its history. However, the story behind this term is intriguing and can indeed increase our appreciation of this beloved sport.
The origins of the term 'pitch' in soccer can be traced back to the British Isles in the Middle Ages. During this period, most sports games, including football and cricket, were played in public spaces, such as village greens, streets, and occasionally, churchyards. In these relatively modest environments, the area where a game was to take place was often "pitched" or marked out.
The verb 'pitch' itself stems from the Old English 'piccian,' which initially meant 'to pierce' but over time evolved to mean 'to set firmly in place.' A 'pitch' was thus a place where something – in this case, a game- was set firmly in place.
The first recorded use of the term 'pitch' to describe a playing surface was in 1480, in relation to cricket. The term was then adopted in the rules of football clubs during the mid-19th century to describe the playing surface. Originally, soccer and rugby were thought of as the same game, with the differentiating factor not the rules but the type of pitch on which they were played: rugby on fields, soccer in the streets.
The definition of a 'pitch' became more formalized in 1863 with the formation of The Football Association in England. The association outlined the measurements and characteristics for a standard soccer pitch, although the term 'pitch' was not officially used in the rules until 1891. In the Laws of the Game, a 'pitch' was defined as the surface on which football is played.
In terms of size, since the late 19th century, a standard soccer pitch has been between 100-130 yards long and 50-100 yards wide. The specific measurement can vary depending on the level of play. However, for international matches, the size is more strictly regulated— a pitch must be between 110 and 120 yards in length and between 70 and 80 yards in width.
Despite these clear regulations, the term 'pitch' is still relatively fluid in its usage.
The Historical Evolution of Soccer Fields as 'Pitches'
Ever since humans started playing soccer in its earliest forms, we have played the sport on different surfaces. The modern soccer field, as we know it today, has undergone quite significant changes over the years. Here's a concise but informative overview, allowing you to trace back the evolution of these soccer fields, or as they're globally known, 'pitches'.
In the early days of soccer in Britain during the mid-19th century, the sport was often played on almost any flat and open space available. These spaces were usually in public areas, like parks, school grounds, or even on streets. The lack of standardization led to an array of sizes and shapes. Essentially, you would have found rectangle, square, or even rounded fields. Back then, the term 'pitch' was used to describe the process of setting up the playing area—picking and marking an area, or 'pitching' a field.
With the adoption of uniform rules in 1863 by the newly-formed Football Association in England, soccer moved past its days of informal play to a more organized sport. The 'Laws of the Game', first drafted in this year, set a standardized size for the playing surface. Soccer pitches evolved from their previous haphazard measurements to a more consistent size, ranging between 100-130 yards in length and 50-100 yards in width.
In the early 20th century, there was a shift towards professionalism. These playing surfaces, originally natural grass fields, started to receive significantly more attention from groundskeepers to keep them in optimal playing conditions. Soccer pitches during this time, although still primarily grass, began to be meticulously maintained instead of simply being any available open space.
Zooming fast forward to the late 20th century, technological advancements brought significant changes. The late 1980s and early 1990s marked the arrival of artificial turf soccer pitches. First introduced in indoor stadiums and colder climates where natural grass growth was a challenge, artificial turf soon became an appealing option for groundskeepers due to its lower maintenance costs and durability. Then, the 21st century saw the advent of hybrid grass technologies, which blend natural grass with synthetic fibres to offer a more durable and weather-resistant pitch.
With the transition to these state-of-the-art pitches, the term 'pitch' has evolved as well. Now, it's also used as a metaphor for the stage where the game unfolds.